Occurrence and Prevention of Jujube Rust

Jujube rust, also called jujube, is an epidemic disease that infects the leaves of jujube trees. Often in the fruit enlargement of jujube caused a large number of deciduous, jujube fruit shrinkage, pulp sugar content decreased, the majority of jujube fruit loss of food value. The worst-hit year even ended in nowhere. After the early fall of the diseased plant, secondary sprouting occurred, which also led to a decrease in production in the following year. It became a major problem to be solved in the production of red dates. In recent years, the author summarized the effective countermeasures for prevention and treatment of jujube rust in the production practice of jujube area along the Yellow River in northern Shaanxi.

1 Injury Symptoms The pathogen of date rust is the phylloxera of the fungus Basidiomycotina. It mainly affects the leaves. The pathogenic bacteria mainly overwinter on the diseased leaf in the summer spore heap, and it can also cause perennial hyphae to overwinter in diseased buds. In the summer of the following year, spores spread to new leaves by wind and rain, invading directly from the front and back of the leaves, causing initial infection. From the early stage of disease to the back of the leaf, scattered or bulging purplish yellow pustules, namely the uredia spores of pathogenic bacteria. Lesions mostly occur on both sides of leaf veins, tip and base of leaf. Intensities often flanked on both sides of the veins are often strips or sheets. When it matures, the epidermis ruptures, yellow powder is scattered, the leaves gradually lose their luster, are covered with yellow brown spots, and finally dry and fallen. Disease incubation period is generally 7-15 days (days). The disease starts from the lower part of the canopy and gradually spreads upward. In severe cases, the leaves of the whole tree fall off, causing the jujube fruit to fail to mature normally.

2 The occurrence of regular crop rust is closely related to the amount of rainfall in July-August. When the relative humidity of air from July to August is between 70% and 80%, the incidence is heavier when the temperature is above 30°C. The incidence rate can reach more than 80%. According to observations, the total rainfall in July reached 250mm. When the average daily temperature reached 30°C, the disease occurred early and heavy. When the rainfall is less than 130mm, the onset is light and late. Any zao forest with low-lying topography, inter-planted corn and other high-stem crops, or jujube forest with irrigated land can cause heavy rust, and the incidence rate is 67%. On the other hand, in the jujube forests of low-stem crops such as mountain or intercropping peanuts, rust occurs relatively lightly and the incidence rate reaches 53%. The occurrence of date rust disease from the disease to the deciduous need to be about 30d, causing the entire tree defoliation will take about 2 months. Jujube tree varieties have different disease resistance. In Zao District of northern Shaanxi Province, the jujube is the heaviest, the incidence rate is 90.5%, the jujube jujube is the second, and the incidence rate is 81%. The jujube is the lightest and the incidence rate is 33%.

3 Prevention measures

1) Measurement. From the beginning of June to the end of July, spore trapping method is used in Zaolin (using glycerin or Vaseline on glass slides). Each group of two is coated with glycerine or petrolatum facing outwards. The rope is fixed and hanged in Zaolin. Observed once every 5 days, combined with July rainfall monitoring.

2) Control methods.

1 chemical control. Mainly in early July in July when the date of spraying rust prevention. Spray 200--300 times Bordeaux mixture (1 part of copper sulfate, 3 parts of quicklime, 3 parts of 200-300 parts of water) or zinc-copper Bordeaux (0.5-0.6 parts of copper sulfate, zinc sulfate) once every 15 days. 0.4--0.5 parts, quicklime 2--3 parts, water 200--300 parts). The popular year can be sprayed again in early August, which can effectively control the occurrence of date rust. The following can be used 25% triadimefon 1500 times, 50% thiophanate-methyl 1000 times, 50% dexamethasone wettable powder 500 times or 50% retort wettable powder 600 times, 75% thiophanate-methyl Wet powder 1000 times control, have a good effect.

2 strengthen the cultivation and management. To build a new date garden, planting jujube trees should not be too dense, and the thick growing branches should be trimmed timely so as to facilitate ventilation and light transmission and enhance tree vigor. The rainy season should pay attention to timely drainage and reduce the humidity of the jujube garden. Late autumn clear leaves in time, concentrated burned or buried in order to reduce the source of overwintering bacteria. Jujube trees should not be planted between high-stalk crops.

3 outside chase fertilizer material. Jujube top dressing has the effect of improving photosynthesis and fruit setting rate, and can also prevent and control jujube rust. In the sensitive period of jujube tree, 0.5% urea solution or 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution can be sprayed for 2 to 3 times.

4 precautions. Spraying requirements are uniform, thoughtful and sufficient. Spraying time should be in the early stage of disease or rust on the appropriate date.

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