Ginseng Disease Prevention and Treatment

Ginseng is an Araliaceae ginseng plant that produces mainly Jilin, Liaoning and Heilongjiang provinces. Roots, stems, leaves, and fruits are used for medicine, which has the functions of nourishing vital energy, relieving the heart, restoring the heart and rejuvenating the body, and rejuvenating the body. There are many kinds of ginseng diseases, and there are more than 20 kinds of ginseng diseases in our country. At present, there are widespread, serious endangered ginseng black spot, disease, sclerotinia and rust.
First, the identification of ginseng black spot disease mainly damages the leaves, but also can harm stems, pedicels, fruits, seeds and other parts. Leaf lesions are suborbicular or irregularly shaped, yellowish-brown, slightly ringy, light yellow halos outside, and black moldy layer. More lesions lead to early leaf litter. The lesions on the stems are oval in shape, yellowish-brown, spreading upwards and downwards, and the depressions in the middle become black, giving rise to a layer of black mold that causes the stems to fall down. The fruit suffers from brown spots on the victim's surface. The fruit dries and falls off early. The black mold layer that developed on the lesion is the conidia of the pathogen. The disease is widespread and one of the most serious diseases of ginseng.
Pathogen and pathogenicity of ginseng black spot is caused by the Fungi spp. Conidiophores 2-16 roots bunched, brown, apically pale; conidia solitary or 2-3 bunched, club-shaped, yellow-brown, short-grass. The bacteria infested with mycelia and conidia on the diseased body, in the soil and on the surface of the seeds became the primary infestation source for the onset of illness in the following year. Conidia are transmitted by wind and rain, and germination tubes invade directly from the host's stomata or epidermis. When the environmental conditions are suitable, a large number of conidia are produced on the lesions, and several infections occur after propagation. Conidial germination optimum temperature 15 °C - 25 °C, 98% relative humidity. In the northeast of the disease originated in mid-May, from July to August for the prosperous period. High humidity and rain are the key factors in the disease epidemic.
Prevention measures 1 Select disease-free seeds and conduct seed disinfection. Use polyoxin 200 mg/kg or 50% mancozeb 1000 times for 24 hours, or 0.2%–0.5% of seed weight.
2 remove the sick body. In the early spring, 100 mg/kg of polyoxin or 1% copper sulfate was used to completely disinfect the ginseng plantation and shelter.
3 Select the land with high groundwater and good drainage permeability. The double-deck sheds should be covered with fallen leaves to achieve reasonable light. In rainy and hot seasons, rain and light should be taken.
4 Panax ginseng seedlings began to be sprayed and prevented at the beginning of leaf development, with 50% mancozeb 800 times solution, 80% dowson 600 times solution, polyoxin 100-200 mg/kg, imidazole 400 times solution, 1:1: 120 Bordeaux liquid spray, spray once every 7-10 days, depending on the progress of the disease spray 3-5 times.
Second, the ginseng epidemic disease symptoms hazard stems, leaves and roots. Leaf lesions were water-stained, irregularly shaped, dark green, no obvious edges, the lesions quickly spread and rot, and the entire compound leaf withered. Dark stripe spots appear on the stems and rot quickly, causing the stems to soften and fall flat. The roots were immersed in yellowish-brown soft rot. The internal tissues showed a tan pattern. The root bark was easily peeled off. The soil covered with white hyphae was covered with a special stench of stench.
Pathogen and pathogenicity The ginseng disease is caused by the flagellinia Phytophthora. The mycelium is colorless, no septate, branched. Zoospores are ovoid, zoospores are round, oospore are spherical, yellow-brown. The pathogens overwinter in mycelia and oospores in the diseased body and soil. When the conditions of the leap year are appropriate, the mycelium directly infects the roots, or forms a large number of zoosporangium and spreads to the shoots to infect the stems and leaves. Wind, rain and agricultural operations are the main ways of disease transmission. During the growth period of ginseng, multiple reinfections can be performed. The onset of the disease began in the northeastern part of June, with the onset of the disease from mid-July to mid-August. Temperatures above 20°C and soil moisture above 50% will cause major epidemics. Beds with poor ventilation and light transmission, soil compaction, excessive nitrogen fertilizer, and excessive density are conducive to the occurrence and epidemic of the disease.
Prevention and control measures 1 Prevent leakage of sheds, pay attention to drainage and ventilation. Double-transplanted greenhouses are used to plant ginseng. Beds must cover fallen leaves. Under-forest ginseng must be selected from broad-leaved forests with large tree crowns.
2 Strengthen field management, maintain proper density, timely remove weeds, and pay attention to loose soil moisture.
3 To detect and eliminate the diseased plants in time, remove the diseased plants from the bed and burn them out. The diseased point is closed and sterilized with quicklime or 1% copper sulfate solution. The disease is completely removed in autumn.
4 Chemical control, before the start of the rainy season spray 1:1:160 Bordeaux mixture, 40% Dysonam ammonium 1000 times, 40% diethylaluminophosphate 300 times, 25% metalaxyl 600 times, 72.2% Precic 600 times Liquid spray 7-10 days 1, depending on the condition of the spray 3 to 5 times.

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