Sweet potato storage and preservation technology

1. Pre-storage requirements In the field, the temperature during the expansion of the sweet potato fries must be above 20°C. Below 15°C, sweet potatoes stop growing. Therefore, when the temperature drops to 15°C, it is the best harvest period for sweet potatoes. The harvest was too early and the temperature was too high. Harvested too late, vulnerable to cold damage at night, increasing storage difficulty. When harvesting potatoes, dig lightly, lightly, and gently, to prevent pathogens from infecting and causing rot. Harvested sweet potatoes should immediately undergo wound healing. That is, it should be kept under the conditions of 30 to 35°C and relative humidity of 90% to 95% for 4 to 6 days, and sufficient ventilation should be maintained. This work is best carried out in sweet potato storage areas to prevent the second move and re-injury. 2. Storage conditions (1) Temperature The optimum temperature for sweet potato storage is 10 to 14°C. Cold temperatures will cause cold damage, making the insides of the potato pieces brown and black, and hardcore and smelly after cooking, and they are easily rotted later. If the temperature is too high, the potato sprouts will start to sprout and gnaw away, accelerating the development of melasma and soft rot. (2) Humidity When the humidity in the cellar is lower than 80%, the water in the tuber will evaporate outwards, resulting in dehydration, wilting, shrinkage, and cramping of the tuber, and the quality of the food will decline. When the relative humidity exceeds 95%, the potato blocks are browned and faded, the pathogens multiply, and the decay rate increases. When the sweet potato enters the pit, the water content exceeds 70%, and the cellar shall be ventilated and drained to cool. Sweet potato stalks that have been stained by water for more than 3 days in the field can only be used for feeding pigs or for making flour. (3) Air content The content of oxygen in the potato cellar must not be lower than 4.5%. Otherwise, it will easily lead to anoxic respiration of the tuber, and lighter weight loss of germinating power, and the lack of oxygen and boring cellar will cause suffocation of the entire cellar. 3. Storage methods and management measures (1) Indoor storage method Select a house with tight insulation, set a fire path around the base of the wall, and use the furnace for heating. Tiles on the floor of the house. It is 1 to 1.5 meters high and 1.5 to 2 meters wide. The length depends on the size of the house and the amount of storage. Cockroach bean and soft grass at the bottom and around. Store healthy sweet potatoes without injury. The use of open and close doors and windows, raw and flame-out stoves, open-mouth rinsing and other measures to meet the needs of safe storage of sweet potatoes. (2) The cellar storage method is to dig 2 meters in the outdoors, 3 to 4 meters long and 2 meters deep in the cellar. If the groundwater level is high, it can be dug into a semi-underground type. The cellar mouth is more than 30 cm above the ground. A wooden stick is set above the cellar, and a 30-cm-thick grazing straw is placed on the stick. The grass is covered with more than 0.5 meters and an entrance is left in the southeast corner. Before the sweet potato enters the pit, put a 10 cm thick soft grass on the pit bottom and four walls. Near the mouth of the pit, the grass should be thickened to prevent the frozen soil from affecting the potato block. Sweet potatoes must not be piled up too high, leaving 60-70 cm in the upper part. Sweet potatoes into the cellar early, the top is not covered, take natural heat, until the cellar temperature dropped to 13 ~ 15 °C, the upper cover 10 cm thick cold-proof material. In the middle of the bottom of the cellar, one hollow section of 20 cm diameter hollow bamboo tube was placed longitudinally and horizontally. The sweet potato heap was exposed from both ends along the pit wall to adjust the air content of the bottom layer. (3) Cellar storage method This method is used more frequently in cold regions in the north. The upper part is like a well, with a wellhead diameter of 1 meter and a depth of 3 to 5 meters (depending on the degree of coldness). When the depth is decided, the excavation is carried out on both sides and the digging is carried out in the horizontal direction. The width is 1 meter and the height is 1.5 meters. After digging into 1 meter, it was dug into a storage room. The size of the storage room depends on the amount of storage, generally 250-300 kilograms of sweet potatoes per cubic meter of space. The bottom of the well requires yellow sand. The wellhead should be 30 cm above the ground. Sweet potatoes are loaded into the storage room and become full. With the well pitting method, personnel need to pay attention to prevent carbon dioxide asphyxia in wells when they go down. During the specific operation, the following points need to be noted: The old cellar must be strictly disinfected. Or scrape off 2 centimeters of old clay walls. During the period of management, the temperature and humidity should not be frequently mutated. Regularly check the potato pit, especially when the weather changes abruptly; soak or spray the sweet potatoes with sweet potato preservative before entering the pit. On the other hand, it can effectively prevent the occurrence of melasma.

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