Egg laying environment requirements

First, the feeding method of laying hens

Divided into two kinds of flat raising and cage raising.

(1) Peace raising is the use of various ground structures to raise chickens in the plane. Flat raising is further divided into two types of matting grounds, flat raising and nets or wooden strips (bamboo pieces). The litter is raised flat on the ground as in the aforementioned brooding season. A certain thickness of litter is laid on the ground, and chickens are raised on the ground. Although this method has a small investment, it has many disadvantages, such as low stocking density, easy contact with chickens and feces, air pollution, more eggs outside the nest, and more dirty eggs. Mesh or wood strips (bamboo pieces) are raised on the net and their structure is the same as that of broiler chickens, except that the mesh is larger, generally 2.5 cm and 5.0 cm; the wooden strips used for raising the wood on the wooden strip are 1.25 to 5.1 cm wide; 2.54 cm wide. Use bamboo pieces to make net layer chickens. The width and width of bamboo pieces are 2.0-2.5 cm. The direction of the wood sticks or bamboo pieces is parallel to the long axis of the house, and the walkway is located in the middle of the house, with a width of 0.8-1.2 meters. On both sides of the aisle, there are Internet connections. Feeding troughs, sinks, and egg boxes are hung on the sides of the aisle. Feeders add materials, add water, and lay eggs on walkways.

(b) Cage Cage is the most important way for modern laying hens to raise eggs. Laying hens are generally caged. Due to its many advantages, it is still favored by chicken farmers despite the large one-time investment. However, caged laying hens have higher requirements on feed and environmental conditions, and there are also some zygomatic syndromes of egg hens, such as chicken fatigue syndrome, fatty liver syndrome, panic disorder, delirium, and the like.

Second, the breeding density

The breeding density during the laying period differs depending on the breed and feeding method. See the table below.

Third, material level and water level

The suitable material level and water level of laying hens are shown in the table below.

Fourth, chicken house temperature

Temperature has a great influence on the growth of laying hens, egg production, egg weight, eggshell quality, fertilization rate of egg, and feed remuneration. The suitable temperature range for laying hens is 5-28°C, and the suitable temperature for egg production is 13-20°C, of ​​which the egg production rate is highest at 13-16°C, and the feed reward is 15.5-20°C. Taking all factors into consideration, the suitable temperature for laying hen house is 13~23°C, the optimum temperature is 16~21°C; the minimum temperature cannot be lower than 7.8°C, and the maximum temperature should not exceed 28°C. Otherwise, the egg production performance of laying hens is greatly affected.

V. Humidity

The relative humidity of laying hens is about 60%, but the relative humidity is 45% to 70%, which has little effect on the production performance of laying hens. Humidity in the house is too low or too high, which is more detrimental to chicken growth and production performance. When the humidity in the chicken house is too low, the air is dry, the feathers of the chicken are disordered, the skin is dry, the amount of drinking water is increased, the dust in the chicken house is flying, and the chicken is susceptible to respiratory diseases. In this case, sprinkle water on the floor, or put the water basin and kettle on the stove to evaporate the water to increase the indoor humidity.

Often encountered in production is not the humidity inside the house is too low but the humidity in the house is too high. When the humidity in the house is too high, the feathers of the chicken are contaminated and the thin chicken droppings are overflowing. This happens mostly in winter. The temperature difference between the inside and the outside is large, the ventilation and ventilation are not easy, and the chickens are susceptible to chronic respiratory diseases. In this case, the humidity should be reduced by increasing ventilation, frequent defecation, and placing some hygroscopic material in the house.

Sixth, ventilation

The purpose of ventilation is to regulate the temperature inside the house, reduce the humidity, remove the dirty air, reduce the concentration and quantity of harmful gases, dust and microorganisms, keep the air fresh in the house, and supply sufficient oxygen to the flock.

To achieve the purpose of ventilation, in the construction of the chicken house, the intake and exhaust ports should be reasonably arranged so that the airflow can flow evenly through the entire house without thunderstorms. Even in cold seasons, low-flow or intermittent ventilation is required. The air inlet must be able to adjust the position and size. When the air is cold, the airflow entering the house should not be blown directly from the top to the bottom. The mechanical ventilation device shall be able to adjust the ventilation volume and adjust the ventilation volume and the air flow rate according to the internal and external temperature differences.

Seventh, light

The principle of illumination of laying hens is that the light time can only be increased and cannot be reduced during the rising period of egg production. In the 2 to 3 weeks before the egg production peak arrives, the longest illumination time per day must reach 16 to 16.5 hours and remain constant. In the late stage of egg production, it can increase 0.5 hours to 17 hours per day.

The light in the closed house should be increased by 1 hour per week on the basis of the original 8 hours per day. After two weeks of continuous increase, it was changed to increase by half an hour each week, until 16-16.5 hours of light per day, and remained constant. The open chicken house mainly uses natural light, and the deficiency is supplemented by artificial light. Therefore, the number of hours of light production during the production of eggs should be adjusted according to the change of local sunshine time. The difference between the number of hours of sunlight and the number of hours of sunshine should be supplemented by artificial light. Increase the lighting time. It is advisable to make up half of the day before and after sunset. The simpler method is to ensure that the prescribed lighting time is switched on and off once in the morning and at night. If you light 16 hours a day, you can turn on the lights at 4:30 in the morning and turn off the lights after sunrise. Turn on the lights in the evening and turn off the lights at 20:30. In this way, the on/off time of the daily light is unchanged, easy to manage, and not easy to be confused.

Artificially supplemented lighting generally uses clean incandescent lamps of no more than 60 watts, and uses a lamp shade, taking care to keep the lamp shade intact and wiping the bulb once a week. When a 40 watt bulb is used, the bulb is 1.5 to 2 meters away from the ground, and the lamp spacing is about 3 meters. If a 25 watt bulb is installed, the lamp spacing should be 1.5 meters. The trough and drinking device should be placed under the bulb as far as possible so that the chicken can Eat and drink.

The light intensity during laying of the laying hens is preferably 10 lux (or 3 watts) per square meter, which is beneficial to egg formation and eggshell calcification. Excessive light can cause chicken anxiety and nerve sensitivity, leading to an increase in broken eggs.

8. Try to avoid stress factors

Stress refers to some syndromes that are harmful to the health of chickens. Stress may be climatic, nutritional, social, or intrinsic (eg, due to certain physiological disorders, pathogens, or toxins).

Chicken stress is characterized by an increase in the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, depletion of adrenal gland cholesterol, elevation of plasma corticosterone levels, atrophy of the thymus gland and atrophy of the capsular cavity of chicks, and changes in the number of circulating white blood cells and blood glucose and plasma free fatty acids. Slowness, weight loss, decreased production performance, etc.

Any sudden change in environmental conditions can cause a stress response in chickens. In the production of chickens, stress factors are unavoidable, such as: weighing, immunization, transfer, breaks, refueling, noise, high or low temperature, excessive density, poor ventilation, and strong light. The sudden changes in the lighting system, the lack or shortage of feed nutrients, the interruption of water supply during the break, the change of breeders and operating procedures, the entrance of strangers, the entry of rats, dogs, cats, etc. into the sheds. Preventing the occurrence of stress reaction, minimizing the appearance of stress factors, and creating a good, stable and comfortable environment inside and outside the chicken house are important contents in the management of laying hens, especially the peak period of egg production.

Stress is harmful, but it is inevitable in production. How to reduce the stress source and minimize the damage can be achieved in layer chicken production. To reduce stress factors, in addition to taking targeted measures, scientific broiler house management procedures should be strictly formulated and carefully implemented, and attention should be paid to the following issues: Keep the inside and outside environment of the house quiet, prevent noise and loud noise, and operate lightly; In addition to personnel and technicians, other personnel are strictly forbidden to enter the henhouse. Birds, cats, dogs and other animals are forbidden to enter the hen house. Grasping chickens, transferring groups, and immunizing are arranged as far as possible in the evening to reduce the disturbing effect on the flock; try to control as much as possible. The environmental conditions required for laying hens include suitable temperature, humidity and density, good ventilation, strict implementation of the lighting system, adequate material level, and water level. Once the routine operation procedures are determined, do not change them easily and try to maintain their fixity; gradually change the feed. It should be a one-week transitional period; for larger stresses such as injections, transfer groups, and severe delirium, add anti-stress substances such as vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin C to drinking water or feed.


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