Onion pollution-free production technology

Onions are one of the important export-oriented vegetable varieties in Yantai City. Fresh onions and dehydrated onions are exported to countries and regions such as Russia, Japan, South Korea, and Southeast Asia. To increase production, product quality, and economic benefits, onions are now under the weather conditions in our city. Pollution-free production techniques are summarized below. 1 The environmental conditions of the place of origin shall be selected far from the areas with “industrial waste” pollution, and the environmental conditions shall comply with the requirements of GB/T 18407.1-2001. The production site should be clean and sanitary, with flat terrain, convenient irrigation and drainage, loose soil, fertile soil and deep soil layers. No scallions or vegetables were planted in 2-3 years. 2 Selection of good varieties of yellow-peel onion varieties with disease resistance, high quality, high yield, storage, adaptability, good commercial properties, and spherical bulbs, such as Japan's Quanzhou Gold and Jinqiu No.1. 3 timely sowing, cultivation seedlings 3.1 sowing date selected September 5-10 for the appropriate time sowing. Seeding the seedlings in the early spring and early spring has high convulsions and reduces the yield and quality. The sowing is too late, the seedlings are small, and the survival rate is low in winter, and the yield is affected at the same time. 3.2 Do the sowing of seedlings and seedlings. Apply 3000 kg of organic fertilizer and 30 kg of NPK fertilizer as the base fertilizer per acre. After deep-turning the flat, make a width of 1-1.20 meters and a length of 10-20 centimeters, and set aside. Cover soil. When sowing, the water is poured into the bottom of the plant and the seed is spread evenly after seeping. In order to ensure uniform sowing, one seed and 10 parts of fine sand can be mixed and sowed. After sowing, it covers 1 cm of fine soil and is evenly distributed. Sprinkle a layer of 0.20-0.50 cm thick fine sand to prevent buckling and reduce the emergence rate. Generally, on-farm field planted in acres, 60-80 square meters of seedlings are planted, and the amount of seed is about 150 grams. 3.3 Seedling management After sowing, the seedlings can be produced 7-8 days after the seedlings are sown. After the seedlings are emerged, they are poured with 1 small water and 15-20 days before being poured again to promote the growth of seedlings and keep the soil moist. At the same time, fertilizer and water management should be adjusted according to the growth of seedlings. If the seedlings are small, ammonium sulfate may be applied in an amount of 10-15 kg per mu. If the seedlings are too large, fertilizer and water should be controlled. 3.4 Strong Seedlings Standard seedlings have three to four leaves at the time of colonization, plant height 12-15 cm, and pseudostem diameter 0.50-0.70 cm, without pests and diseases. 4 timely planting 4.1 soil preparation Fertilizer onion production of 1000 kg bulbs, about the need to absorb nitrogen 2-2.40 kg, phosphorus 0.70-0.90 kg, potassium 3.70-4.10 kg. Fertilization should be based on soil fertility conditions, crop fertilizer requirements and fertilizer effects, the implementation of balanced soil fertigation. Generally, 4000-5000 kg of organic fertilizer is applied per acre, and 25-30 kg of N, P and K compound fertilizers are added. After the application, the flats are made to a width of 1.20 meters and a length of 15-20 centimeters, and then covered. Black mulch, or covered with a white layer of land covered with a layer of 0.20-0.50 cm thick fine soil, you can avoid the use of herbicides, improve product quality, but also play a role in insulation moisturizing, weed control. 4.2 timely planting October 25-November 25 for the colonization period. 4.3 When planting and planting properly, the seedlings shall be grading by size, and be planted in batches. The bamboo shoots or wooden sticks shall be used to drill holes in the top of the mulch, and then the seedlings shall be implanted in the holes, and the roots shall be sealed with fine soil. Planting depth to bury the stem plate, not buried in the heart, about 1-1.50 cm deep is appropriate. Planting density is 13-15 cm in spacing and 15 cm spacing. 5 Management after planting 5.1 Pre-winter field management After planting, plant 1 seedling with slow watering, keep the soil moist during the seedling period, and find that seedlings should be replaced in time to ensure that the seedlings are full. In early December, the frozen water is poured 1 time before the soil is frozen. 5.2 Returning green period and management of bulb expansion Before the beginning of March, the seedlings begin to return to green. The soil moisture should be poured 1 time and return to Qingshui, combined with 10 kg of urea and 20 kg of NPK fertilizer per acre to promote seedling growth. . Before bulb expansion in early April, 10 kg of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer and 1 kg of potassium dihydrogen phosphate were applied per acre with watering to promote leaf growth. 5.3 Bulb expansion management In mid-May, the bulb expansion period is followed by another fertilizer, with 10 kg of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer and 15 kg of potassium dihydrogen phosphate per acre. This will promote timely watering of bulbs during the expansion of the bulbs. Dry to see wet. Stop watering 5-7 days before harvest. 6 Pest control The main diseases of onion are soft rot, downy mildew, purple spot, etc. The main pests are mantle and thrips. The non-pollution control techniques are as follows: 6.1 Soft rot 1 Agricultural measures. Cultivate strong seedlings and timely transplant; apply basic fertilizers, increase phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, and increase plant resilience; choose sunny harvest and prevent bulbs from wet soil. 2 Timely control of pests such as thrips, fly species and other pests. 3 Chemical control: 77% can be used to kill WP 500-600 times, 5% bactericidal emulsion 300 times, 50% TCH copper wettable powder 500 times, 72% agricultural streptomycin Soluble powder 4000 times liquid, neophytin 4000-5000 times liquid, etc., spraying at the beginning of the disease, and pay attention to spraying the plant base. Spray once every 5-7 days and spray twice. 6.2 Downy mildew 1 Selection of disease-resistant varieties from disease-free or disease-free plants; soaking in warm water at 50°C for 25 minutes before sowing, or dressing seed with 25% of seed weight with 0.30% of seed weight; choose topography Or a convenient drainage plot for planting, with 2-3 years of non-onion garlic crop rotation. 2 chemical prevention. At the beginning of the disease, spray 72% Kelu WP 600 times or 64% WP 600 times, 72.20% PREK (or Provamil) 700 times, etc., spray every 7-10 days. Times, spray 2-3 times. 6.3 purple spot 1 agricultural measures. With non-onion and garlic crops for 2-3 years of rotation; if necessary, 40% formaldehyde 300 times soaking for 3 hours to prevent field water; full base fertilizer, application of phosphorus, potassium fertilizer. 2 chemical prevention. At the beginning of the disease, spraying 50% acetaminophen WP 1500 times or 80% WP WP 600 times, 72% WP WP 600 times, 64% WP WP 500 times, etc. 7-10 days spray 1, even spray 2-3 times. 6.4 Mantle 1 Agricultural measures. The use of organic fertilizer, the place where the mantle occurred, can be flooded twice a day. 2 chemical prevention. Before planting, soak the roots of the seedlings with 50% phoxim 1000-1500 times solution or 90% crystal dipterex 1000-1500 times for 2 minutes, or spray at the early stage of the disease, spray once every 7-10 days, spray 2-3 times. 6.5 Onion Hummer 1 agricultural measures. Clean the garden, diligently eliminate weeds, reduce the source of insects. 2 chemical prevention. In the peak period of nymphs spraying 5% Rui Jin Su 3000 times suspension or 20% imidacloprid wettable powder 2500 times, spray every 7-10 days, even spray 2-3 times. 7 timely harvest, proper storage generally around mid-June, when false stems are 90% lodging, choose sunny harvest, avoid rain. After harvest, care should be taken to avoid mechanical injury, and then dry in a cool and ventilated place. After the outer skin of the bulb is air-dried, it should be sold in accordance with export standards.

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