First, the cowhouse temperature is generally the most suitable temperature for dairy cows is 12 Â°C ~ 14 Â°C, the optimum temperature for pregnant cows and lactating dairy cows is 16 Â°C ~ 20 Â°C; lactation dairy cows home temperature is higher than 24 Â°C or lower than -4 Â°C, then Milk production decreased; the optimum temperature for calves is 35Â°C to 38Â°C. Second, the drinking water temperature 1. Milking cows drinking temperature: 1 ordinary drinking water temperature: cold water for the cooling factor, cows drink cold water is the consumption of body heat, affecting milk production; è¬ such as drinking water below 8 Â°C, the milk production was significantly reduced. In spring, the drinking temperature of dairy cows is maintained at 9Â°C to 15Â°C. Compared with drinking water at -2Â°C, the milk cows produce more milk 0.57 liters per day, which means that the milk production rate is increased by 8.7%. 2 Drink wheat bran water temperature: The dairy cow feels thirsty and loses body temperature due to loss of a lot of water after birth. At this time drink bran water instead of drinking water, the temperature is higher than the body temperature 1 Â°C ~ 2 Â°C (milk cows normal body temperature 37.5 Â°C ~ 39.5 Â°C), there is added body fluids, the effect of warming the body. Drinking cold water is forbidden, otherwise it may cause diseases such as retention of tires and colds. 2. Yak drinking temperature: 1 general drinking water temperature: calf body temperature is higher than adult cattle, so drinking water temperature should be higher than adult cattle, general drinking water to 35 Â°C ~ 38 Â°C is appropriate. 2 calf milk temperature: When calf artificial breast feeding, regardless of colostrum or regular milk, should be cooled after heating and disinfection to 35 Â°C ~ 37 Â°C feeding, high or low have adverse effects. In addition, the production of "small white beef" requires the use of breast-feeding male calves that are not emaciated. From birth to 100 days of age, it is completely dependent on milk for nutrition. The milk temperature must be controlled within the range of 40Â°C to 41Â°C, and the temperature should be maintained at 18Â°C. ~20Â°C. Third, scrub the temperature of the breast water Each cow before milking, need to use a dry towel soaked with warm water 45 Â°C ~ 50 Â°C, a comprehensive scrub breasts, nipples, and then massage the breasts. After 1 to 2 minutes, the breasts swell, the nipples swell, the milk veins bulge, and the breast splanchnic muscles relax. The reflexes that have produced a "milk" have begun and the milking can begin immediately. Do not scrub the nipples with hot or cold water, otherwise the cows will feel uncomfortable and will have a suppressive response to â€œmilkâ€ reflexes, ie, reduce milk production. Fourth, the temperature of milk storage and disinfection of milk to save the new extruded milk, the temperature is close to the temperature of the body of cattle, is a breeding ground for microorganisms, if not cool quickly save the rancidity, so immediately use cold water soaking the container for cooling, The temperature of the milk drops to 4Â°C to 10Â°C. Milk disinfecting milk contains a variety of harmful microorganisms, such as E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, fluorescent bacteria, butyric acid bacteria. If not sterilized, these harmful microorganisms multiply, causing the milk to deteriorate. Disinfection does not use drugs and it is mainly heated and sterilized. In order to make milk contain non-high-temperature nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins, etc. are not destroyed, milk disinfection is mainly used "non-high temperature" heating and disinfection method, that is pasteurization method, the practice is: the milk is heated to 75 Â°C ~ 80 Â°C, keep 15 to 30 seconds, immediately stop heating. Fifth, the preservation temperature of bovine semen Sperm is not afraid of cold, 54.5 Â°C can make sperm inactivation, on the contrary, low temperature can make it stop motion, reduce energy consumption, to long-term survival. In the past, most semen used for artificial insemination were stored at room temperature or cryogenic, and the storage time was very short, thus greatly limiting the superiority of artificial insemination. Since the 1950s, the preservation of semen has entered an era of "ultra-low temperature" preservation. The first use of dry ice (solid carbon dioxide), the temperature of -79 Â°C; to 60 years, began to use liquid nitrogen, the temperature is -196 Â°C. Its conception rate is similar to that of fresh semen, and this method has been widely used in the cattle industry. 6. Preheating Temperature of Cattle Frozen Semen When artificial insemination of cattle, the frozen semen needs to be thawed, and thawing requires warm water. The temperature of the water should be accurately controlled at 41Â° C. to 50Â° C., and the temperature difference between the upper and lower sides should not exceed 10Â° C. to ensure the thawing. The vitality of sperm is not affected, and the fertilization rate will not be reduced due to improper temperature. In experiments with yellow cattle, thawing of frozen semen at a temperature of 41Â°C is thawing at a temperature of 38Â°C, which can increase the rate of female birthing by 33.3%.
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