The rice-duck communal breeding technology is a high-quality and high-efficiency agricultural technology that is currently being organized and promoted by major rice production countries in China and Asia. This technology has received extensive attention both at home and abroad due to its advantages in reducing rice planting and duck production costs, improving the quality of rice and duck products, and reducing environmental pollution caused by the use of pesticides and fertilizers. Rice-duck co-cultivation ducks are used for paddy weeding, insect removal, drowning, fertilizing and stimulating rice growth in paddy fields, and paddy fields provide grazing grounds and food baits for ducks, which are interdependent and complement each other. According to the large-scale domestic practice, the implementation of rice-duck breeding can increase income by 120-140 yuan per mu. In addition, ducks can save about 30% of the feed, and a duck can earn 3 yuan in net profit. In view of the significant economic and social benefits of rice-duck co-education, this technology has a great potential in China and Asia. In 2004, the total area of â€‹â€‹rice and duck breeding was more than 2 million mu. In Hubei Province in 2004, 11 cities and counties focused on demonstration and promotion, and the area of â€‹â€‹promotion was nearly 200,000 mu. This year, 24 counties and cities across the province demonstrated and promoted more than 1 million acres. In southern China, it is not only a traditional rice production area, but also a traditional duck production area. To vigorously promote the technology of rice-duck breeding is not only important for the development of ecological agriculture, but also will promote the development of duck breeding. To the important role. Rice-duck communion involves two major technical aspects of rice cultivation and duck production. As a duck-duck breeder, there are both characteristics of common duck production and differences. In order to promote the in-depth development of rice-duck co-culture technology, the production technology of duck breeding for ducks and ducks is outlined in order to achieve the effect of attracting jade. 1 Selection of duck breeds The selection of duck breeds for ducks and ducks should be considered. One is that ducks have smaller individuals and are suitable for walking through the paddy fields. They are quick to move and have a good effect in removing insects, weeds and drowning. Ducks have strong water resistance and can move in rice fields for a long time. The second is the economics of listing duck products, namely feeding age, listing weight, and listing age. In the market, ducks weighing more than 1.5kg and feeding for more than 3 months old are selling at a high price (for meat ducks, they can be souped, and ducks can be opened soon). Ducks and ducks co-educated one duck after the end of the batch. As ducks for laying eggs, ducks of relatively high production were selected. These ducks were purchased from all over the market, and were purchased by egg-duck producers for production. This young duck generally requires a feeding period of about 95 days, and the main wings of the two wing feathers will be opened soon after crossing. The price is generally 18 yuan for the purchase price, which is higher than the same weight of the maw duck. As meat ducks are listed, it is better to choose individuals with relatively large meat and eggs as well as hybrids that use both meat and eggs and ducks and ducks. The body weight of 70 to 80 days is 1.5 kg or more, which is suitable for folk traditional processing. Ducks with this weight have certain deposits of intermuscular and intramuscular fat. The taste of ducks is better than that of fast ducks. The meat duck slaughtering plant and the live duck market are acquired in large quantities and the products are not sold off. In view of the above factors, the selection of ducks for rice and duck breeding, the feeding of Shaoxing ducks and their supporting strains (Jiangnan No.1, Jiangnan No.2, Baihuo No.1, and Qingchuang No.2), Jinding Duck, and Suyou No. 2 duck, Jinyun Ma duck, Jingjiang Ma duck and so on, such ducks produce an average of about 300 eggs each year, the average egg weight 68-70 grams, is also more suitable for processing egg processing needs. Meat ducks are recommended to breed the relatively small fragrant ducks in the meat and eggs as well as high-grade local meat-egg mixed ducks and high-producing ducks in ducks such as Gaoyou ducks. The production is suitable for paddy ducks. Also suitable for the market's sales of high quality Ma feather duck. Ducks bred in Japan's rice and ducks are called "sweet ducks," which are ducks that are a hybrid of domestic and wild ducks. Such ducks have better serviceability and water resistance than domestic ducks, and are special ducks for the common breeding of rice and ducks. In addition, domestic Zhenjiang also carried out the cultivation of ducks for duck and duck breeding. The method was also to use ducks of ducks to cross with ducks and ducks, and to cultivate the No. 1 and No. 2 Yazui ducks for the common breeding of rice and ducks. The water resistance of ducks has been reported for 25 hours. This dedicated duck is a meat duck, and the duck's flavor is better than that of a domestic duck. In promotion, Hubei also uses purebred mallards to carry out rice and duck co-education. The effect of weeding and removing insects is better. Only after the rice and duck co-education, the duck's body weight is small, only about 1 kg, but after half-month breeding, the body weight can be More than 1 kilogram, due to high prices, only an average of 4-5 yuan income. 2 Duck-fed facilities for duck breeding The duck-fed facilities for breeding ducks and ducks are relatively scattered because of the large number of households. When there is a large amount of breeding, one can build a duck house in a field where the terrain is high dry. The ground of the duck house should be more than 20 cm above the farmland. The duck house faces south. It is recommended to build plastic duck sheds with a width of about 4m and a shed height of about 1.8m. The shed length will depend on the number of ducks. The bamboo slat roof is made of bamboo, the inner layer is covered with a drip-free plastic film, the middle is covered with 10 cm thick straw, and the outer layer is covered with a plastic film to waterproof and fix the straw. The plastic film on both sides of the greenhouse can be put down and put away to facilitate the ventilation and insulation of the duck house. 7 to 8 ducks per square (breeding and laying duck) determine the duck house area. The stadium is facing the paddy field and is tilted 15 degrees toward the paddy field to facilitate drainage and a 1.8m high sun screen is built on the sports field. The stadium is surrounded by 3 ducks per square yard. In order to prevent the ducks from getting wet, the duck houses can be made of bamboo nets. When the number of animals is small, simple duck cans can be placed on the field side. The mobile duck awning is generally about 1.5m high. According to the breeding number, the area of â€‹â€‹the duck shed is determined, and it is nailed with wooden strips or bamboo strips. The strip width is 2.5 to 3 centimeters, the gap interval is 1 to 1.5 centimeters, and the bottom net is 20 to 25 centimeters from the ground. . The aspect ratio of the shed is 1:0.7-0.8. Can also be used cement tile 6 to 8 block build duck shed. The shed is 1.5m high at one end and 0.7m low at the end. The high end faces the ridges or roadsides to manage and observe the ducks. The roof of the shed is covered with straw insulation. The shed is surrounded with a nylon mesh of small aperture to prevent the ducks from escaping and the natural enemies entering the shed. . 3 Ducks and Rice Production Processing (1) Incubation of eggs and lower grains: Normally, eggs are hatched at the same time as the rice is cultivated, so that the ducks can be returned to the field in time after entering the field. Ducks and quail ages can be the same age or duck age is slightly greater than the larvae, quail age should generally not be greater than the age of the ducks, otherwise quail high ducks, insect removal, weeding effect is not ideal. (2) Time for dropping ducks: When the outside temperature is high, the ducklings can enter the paddy field after one week of age, and when the temperature is low, they can enter the field from 12 to 15 days of age. For the seedlings, the ducks were allowed to enter the paddy field after transplanting for 12 days and throwing the fish for 15 days. Breed ducks and adult ducks can be placed in paddy fields 18 to 20 days after the seedlings are transplanted, and the seedlings can be easily damaged. (3) Number of ducks per acre: According to the deworming, weeding, and paddy field feed, about 12 ducks are supported per acre of paddy field. For example, the rice field is stocked with green ash, 15-18 ducks per acre. (4) Size of unit plots: According to the range of activities of the ducks foraging in the field and the effects of weeding and removing insects, the size of the ducks in each plot should not be too large. It is more appropriate to form a unit with 5 to 10 acres, each group. The number of ducks is about 100 or so. If the ducks are too large, the growth of the seedlings will be unfavorable. It is often difficult to grow seedlings with about 5 square feet in the duck house. (5) Paddy Field Seine Nets: Determine the plots for raising ducks, and use a 2.5-cm nylon net per acre in the 80-cm-high fence around Tianbian to prevent ducks from escaping and natural enemies from entering rice fields. The mesh of the fence is not greater than 22 Good for cents. Every 1.5-2 meters to insert a bar fixed fence, there are conditions in the nylon network peripheral three pulse wire, to prevent natural enemies from entering the rice field harm ducklings. (6) Duck Shed Setup: Build a duck canopy or place a mobile duck canopy (in summer, place it in the shade) in a well-ventilated, high-lying, and convenient water source area for ducks to rest and supplement. (7) Paddy field productive ditches: places where there is no water around duck canopy, may consider leaving the abundance of productive ditches. The ditches are 35 cm wide and 30 cm deep, and water is often kept to facilitate the ducks to splash in the water, such as a trench near Tianbian or Ducks and ducks are free to enter, so there is no need to open another production channel. (8) Row spacing of rice seedlings: rice should be grown in a narrow range. Row spacing is 8 inches, plant spacing is 6 inches, mu is planted with 125,000 baht, and 6-70,000 basic seedlings. The ducks in the paddy fields can walk and feed. The rice yield can reach 550kg. If it is a throwing trout, the number of seedlings thrown out will be more appropriate, so as to make up for some of the seedlings destroyed by ducks in the field. (9) Paddy field water cultivation: The paddy field is kept at a depth of 5 to 10 cm to facilitate the cultivation of ducks in the water in the field and promote rice production. In order to facilitate drowning, paddy fields should be ducks with shallow water and ducks with deep water. During the drying season, the ducks can still be in the field, but there is water left in the ditch and the pond near the duck house. (10) Raphanus edulis in paddy fields: Alpinia has the ability to fix nitrogen, and at the same time it can provide more adequate feed for ducks, which is beneficial to the growth of ducks and rice. Algae are usually reared in paddy fields after rice returns to green. Studies have shown that a duck that does not release the green loppy duck produces 10 kg of feces in one batch of two months in the field, and ducks in the rice paddy field that has placed the arbutin can produce 30 kg of feces. Larvae are stocked to provide more fertilizer in paddy fields. 4 Feeding and management of ducks 4.1 Brooding temperature and temperature, humidity, density (1) Brooding methods and facilities: Brooding methods include cage breeding, online feeding, and raising of ground litter. In rural areas, the ground litter is mostly raised. 1 When breeding in a large group, one can use the old house or in the corner of the duck house to form a small greenhouse (25 to 30 ducks per square meter) with a braided film or a drip-free plastic film, and transform it with a cast iron furnace or an old gas tank. To raise the temperature of the burning coal stove, use a flue pipe to discharge the exhaust gas outside. The second is that a small greenhouse with a height of more than one meter can be built in the house with a drip-free plastic film or a braided film. The ground is covered with rice husks. In the small greenhouse, a 250 watt infrared lamp is hung from the ground at 80 to 100 cm. Breeding 150 to 200 babies. When 230 to 50 small groups are raised, one can use carton brooding. Carton brooding Choose a large closed cardboard box with 5 cm of rice husk or sawdust inside. Open a window with a height of 13 cm and a height of 10 cm at the bottom of the box to allow ducklings to stick their heads out of the water to feed. If the temperature is not enough, a 100-Watt light bulb can be hung inside the box, covered with a plastic film, and the lower part can be ventilated. The second is the use of mobile duck shed brooding, shed inside the straw pad, external plastic film duck shed cover tight, the lower part of the ventilation and ventilation, shed, such as the temperature is not enough, you can increase the temperature of the light bulbs. (2) Brooding temperature: 1 Principle of warming: low during the day, high at night, low on sunny days, high on rainy days, low on young chicks, and weak on young chicks. 2 to the temperature standard: 1 to 3 days of age 30 to 28 degrees, 4 to 6 days of 26 to 28 degrees, 7 to 10 days of 24 to 26 degrees, 11 to 14 days of 22 to 24 degrees, thereafter maintaining a temperature of 20 degrees Can be about. 3 Location of temperature measurement: The thermometer should be placed at the same height as the ducklings. This temperature is the actual temperature of the ducklings. 4 Suitable standards for brooding temperature: Observe the status of ducklings to see if the temperature is appropriate. When the temperature is low, the ducklings are crowded. One is that the middle duckling is prone to sweating and catching a cold, and the second is that the ducklings are easily crushed. If the temperature is too high, the ducklings will increase their drinking water, breathe openly and stay away from heat. When the temperature is appropriate, the ducklings extend their head and neck and are evenly distributed in the duck house. (3) Humidity: Humidity of ducklings from 0 to 10 days is 65% to 70%, followed by 55% to 60%. (4) Density of brooding: 30 to 35 eggs per square meter at the age of 1 to 10 days and 25 to 30 eggs at the age of 11 to 20 days. 4.2 Feed (1) Recommended feed formula for 0-3 weeks old ducklings: corn 36%, rice 13%, brown rice 13%, fish meal 5%, bean cake 7%, peanut cake 11%, cabbage cake 4.5%, rice bran 3%, bran Leather 5%, calcium hydrogen phosphate 0.8%, stone powder or shell powder 0.7, salt 0.2%, multi-dimensional element 0.01%, trace elements plus instructions. This formula contains 11.5 MJ of metabolic energy, 20% of crude protein, 0.9% of calcium, and 0.45% of phosphorus per kilogram. In addition, in the absence of special duckling ingredients, chicks can be used instead of sucker feed. Small groups feeding In the absence of ingredients, the rice can also be steamed half-cooked, washed with water to remove stickiness, mix 2 to 3 cooked egg yolks per kilogram, and add 20% of greens to feed ducklings. (2) Feeding amount: During the feeding of ducklings from 1 to 15 days of age, small ducks and ducks recommend 3g of feed per day on the first day, and then increase by 3g each day; concurrent use of ducks only feeds 4.5g on the first day afterwards. Add 4.5g daily. (3) Feeding after ducklings in rice fields. For feed supplements, the feed formula is recommended as follows: 63% for cereals such as corn or wheat, 16% for bran or rice bran, 18% for pancake, 1.2% for bone meal, 1.5% for rock meal, and 0.3% for salt. According to the amount of duck per acre of land, the average daily feed of 50 to 70g per day. Raw grain feed can also be used instead of mix. After the batch of rice and ducks were co-educated, the feed nutrient concentration and feed amount were adjusted according to the duck's lyrical and weight conditions, so that the bred ducks met the requirements for listing. 4.3 Feeding (1) Boiling water: Ducklings should be allowed to drink water within 24 hours after hatching. One of the traditional methods of drinking water for the first time is to allow 50 to 60 ducklings to be placed in a bamboo basket and put the ducklings into the water to soak the legs. The temperature is above 15 degrees and the ducklings are in the water for 8 to 10 minutes. The temperature is below 15 degrees. Ducklings in the water 3 ~ 5min; Second, the ducklings into the 3 cm deep shallow pool activities in minutes. The third is to spray warm water directly on the ducklings so that they can feed each other. Scale ducklings directly allow ducklings to drink with a drinking fountain. (2) Feeding and Feeding Methods: Ducklings can be fed after drinking for half an hour. Ducklings are poorly digested and feed less to feed and eat less. At the age of 10 days, the mice were fed 6 times in the day (including 2 times in the evening) and fed 4 to 5 times in the day after 10 days of age (including 1 or 2 times in the evening). Feeding should be mixed with wet, and the time of feeding each time in the previous week is controlled at 10 minutes to prevent eating too much and causing indigestion. Ducklings must be fed with compound feed before the age of 2 weeks, fed to the mix during the 3 to 4 weeks of age, and then can be supplemented with cereals. Feeding method, the first 4 ~ 5d can be sprinkled on the plastic film on the feed, then changed to the material basin. After entering the ducklings in the paddy field, depending on the feed intake of the ducks in the paddy fields, feed the feeds twice a day, morning and night. Feed them in the morning and feed them in the evening. (3) Feeding sand: In order to promote digestion of duck food, sand grains are added to the material from the 2nd week, and the sand grains are straight through 4 to 5 mm, and each week is 150 to 200 g. The bred ducks can pile 6-8mm sand directly on the corner of the playground or around the duck shed for free feeding. When feeding in a mobile duck canopy, a nail feeding trough can be hung in the duck canopy and the sand can be put in the trough for its feeding. (4) Feeding green material: In order to train young ducklings to ingest green material, 3 to 4 days of age are to mix green material in the material. After the first week of age, the green material accounts for 15% to 20% of the concentrate material. In the second week, green material accounted for 30%. 4.4 During the brooding period, in order to prevent heaping and promote the growth and development of the brood, according to the duckling constitution and strength, the individual size is divided into groups of about 40, and the feeding and management of the sick and weak ducklings are strengthened. 4.5 Illumination time: 24 hours in the first week, 16 hours in 2 to 3 weeks, and all natural illumination after 3 weeks. The luminosity of the first week of 3 to 4 watts, so that ducklings can easily identify drinking fountains and material basin, after 2 to 3 watts. Light can be replaced by a lantern in the absence of lights. 4.6 duck group training (1), ducklings domestication: ducks in the water, livelihood, strong resistance to water, water resistance time after the water is not wet. When the ducklings are 4 days old, let the ducklings automatically go into the water at a temperature of 12 to 14 o'clock. The depth of the pool is 10 cm, and the time for the first water is no longer than 10 min. After going ashore, dry and dry fluff can be used again. The watering time does not exceed 2 hours. The 5-day-old watering time can be 4 to 5 hours. After 5 days of age, it is allowed to freely enter the water. The body temperature regulation of 8-day-old ducklings is close to that of adult ducks. The duck glands of ducklings are more developed. By ducking, ducklings can enter rice fields in advance. When catching water, notice that the time is from short to long, only allow the fluff to be slightly moist but not more than half damp. The ducklings that are too moist should be picked out for drying in the greenhouse. (2) The young ducklings start from the brooding and brooding, and each time they feed, they whistle or fix the percussion sounds, play music, etc., and train the habits of calling them for management. (3) In the first 3 to 4 days after the ducks were put into the paddy field, a temporary 10- to 20-square-meter early grazing area was surrounded by the duck sheds. The ducks were familiar with the duck sheds and paddy field environment, and they built feeds and rested homes. habit. (4) When feeding the ducks in the first few days of Shimoda, part of the grains should be thrown into the rice fields to train the habit of ducks feeding in the water. (5) timing feeding. The daily morning and evening supplements are fixed, and no feed is provided at other times, so that the ducks develop the habit of feeding in non-feeding time in rice fields. 4.7 Prevention of Heat Strike, Pesticide Poisoning, Strong Storms The duck canopy can be placed under shade or in a well-ventilated place. When the outside temperature reaches 32 degrees, the ducks should call back. During the summer, the ducks should not be allowed to fall into the field every day from 9am to 4pm to prevent heatstroke. The rice that the rice and duck co-cultivated generally does not apply pesticides, and the pesticides that must be applied are low-toxic pesticides. All ducks are housed within 3 to 4 days after application. When the ducklings are in the field and before the storm, they must take the ducklings back to the duck canopy before dawn and block the wind and rain. Otherwise, it is easy for the ducklings to get cold, frightened and die in large numbers. 4.8 Prevent animal pests from strengthening their care and guard against rats, weasels, snakes, and eagles. 4.9 The ducks shall promptly drive the ducks out of the paddy fields after they emerge from the field and produce rice spikes. As a meat duck, it is used for fattening and fattening. When fattening, it is fed with energy feed such as grain and less green feed. As ducks, ducks were adjusted according to body weight, and the ducks were evenly distributed by feeding. 5 Epidemic prevention (1) Control of bacterial diseases. During the brooding period of young ducklings, 5 g of oxytetracycline calcium powder was added for every 100 kg of feed, and drug administration was continued for 3 to 4 days. The drug was discontinued for 4-5 days. 50 to 70 PPM of enrofloxacin was added to the drinking water in the first 3 days of the ducklings. (2) Deworming: At the age of 50 days, 10 to 50 mg per kilogram body weight of fenbendazole was used for one dose. In addition, 100 mg per kilogram body weight of albendazole can also be used for one dose. (3) Prevention and Immunization of Several Important Infectious Diseases: According to the prevalence of duck disease, it is recommended that duck plague, bird flu, duck viral hepatitis, duck cholera, infectious serositis, and E. coli be considered as the prevalence of local duck disease. Where appropriate immune. Immunization procedure: immunization procedure for ducks at about 70 days of age: 1 day of age: duck hepatitis virus attenuated seedlings (ducking ducks were not vaccinated before and during laying of ducks, such as ducklings vaccinated ducklings 7-10 days Age inoculation); 7 days of age: serositis + duckling E. coli multivalent inactivated vaccine; 10 days of age: Inactivated vaccine for bird flu oil; 15-20 days of age: duck attenuated vaccine; 30 days of age: poultry Cholera inactivated vaccine. Reserve young duck duck immunization program: On the basis of the above-mentioned duckling immunization program, 60-70 days old were inoculated with duck maggot attenuated virus vaccine and bird flu oil agent inactivated vaccine; 90 days old chicken cholera oil vaccine inactivated vaccine .
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